Lakes Environmental Newsletter
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Monthly Newsletter - April 2021 Edition

What a Cybersecurity Breach Will Cost You in 2021

Global experts predict that cybersecurity breaches will cost the world $10.5 TRILLION annually by 2025.

On average, the cost of a single data breach has reached $200,000. This means that a mere “average” cybersecurity attack could potentially put a company out of business. In fact, sixty percent of small companies go out of business within six months of an attack.

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If you’re a small-to-medium business, recovering from a cyber attack will cost you roughly $13,000-$38,000. And this does not account for lawsuits and damage to your company’s reputation. Small businesses have, unfortunately, also become more common targets of cyber attacks, accounting for a whopping 43%-47% of cyber crimes.

If you are an enterprise level company, the cost to recover from a cyber attack can exceed $1M.

How can I defend myself against a Cyber Attack?

The best way to defend yourself against attack is through prevention.

Going after cyber criminals after a breach has occurred is a lot like trying to un-spill milk or un-tell a secret. Even if you do manage to track down and make the criminals pay back whatever monetary value the breach cost you, the proprietary and highly sensitive information that was leaked can never be taken back.

The breach can result in ruined reputations, possible lawsuits against your company, and the loss of your competitive edge. For most companies, this kind of damage has no equivalent financial amount.

Read the full article here.

To sign up for a free trial today and learn more about Tauria, click here.

Online CALPUFF Course - May 18-19, 2021

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Our team will present 2 days of online CALPUFF training from May 18 to 19, 2021. Even with our online courses, we limit attendance to ensure only the highest level of training is provided.

Register early!


CALPUFF (May 18-19, 2021)



Just Announced – New Online AERMOD and CALPUFF Courses!

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We’re pleased to announce the following upcoming Online AERMOD and CALPUFF Air Dispersion Modeling Courses. Join us for world class training from the safety of your own home or office with our senior level air quality experts!

Register and pay today before space is gone!

AERMOD: Jun 29-30, 2021

AERMOD: Sep 21-22, 2021

AERMOD: Aug 10-11, 2021

CALPUFF: Sep 28-29, 2021

Online Registration is available now. Our online courses sell out quickly! We recommend registering and making payment as soon as possible.

A&WMA Annual Conference and Exhibition

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The Annual Air & Waste Management Conference and Exhibition will again be held in a fully virtual and interactive format to ensure the safety of attendees, volunteers, and employees. This event will take place from June 14-17, 2021. Lakes Environmental is proud to be both a sponsor and exhibitor of the conference.

With over 200 platform, panel, and poster presentations planned, you’re sure to get the information you need to get ahead and stay ahead!

Visit the conference website for regular updates as we lead up to the virtual event kick-off on June 14, 2021.


2021 Course Schedule

May 18-19, 2021
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Sep 21-22, 2021
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Jun 29-30, 2021
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Sep 28-29, 2021
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Aug 10-11, 2021
Register →

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Onsite Data in AERMET – Part 2: Data File Conventions

Last month, our tip described how AERMET reads custom meteorological data via its Onsite Pathway. AERMET’s Onsite Pathway gives users full control over how the model will read the data provided by the modeler, but there are some general conventions that must still be followed. Let’s take a closer look at some of the rules and guidelines for how the Onsite data file should be written.

Identifying Variables

AERMET can read over 20 unique meteorological variables from single surface-level measurements – such as pressure, radiation, or precipitation amount – to variables recorded at multiple heights or levels above ground (see below for more info on multi-level variables).

  • Convention: While not explicitly required, AERMET generally prefers for single-level variables be listed prior to multi-level variables.
  • Convention: The same variables must appear for all observation periods.
  • Note: Not all variables are currently read by AERMET. Table B-4 of the US EPA’s AERMET User Guide identifies which variables can be left out.

In AERMET View, use the Edit button to open the Onsite Variables dialog and identify which variables are in your file.

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Multiple Levels

Variables such as wind and temperature can be recorded from multiple heights above ground. AERMET allows modelers to input data from as many as 50 different measurement heights. This data is written to the Profile met file (*.PFL) created by AERMET and allows AERMOD to generate an accurate vertical profile of the atmosphere when modeling. For example, AERMOD will use the wind data measured closest to stack height for each source.

Multi-level variables are identified using an integer to specify which height the variable is observing starting closest to the ground. For example, TT01 refers to temperature data (TT) from the level nearest to ground (01) while WS02 identifies wind speed (WS) from the next lowest level (02).

In AERMET View, height values can either be identified as a variable in the data string (use the HTnn variable) or via the Additional Parameters tab.

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Height Levels in AERMET View

Sub-Hourly Observations

While AERMET’s Surface Pathway only identifies hourly observations, the Onsite Pathway can read up to 12 periods in a single hour (5-minute resolution). AERMET then calculates an hourly average for each parameter and processes the hourly data.

  • Convention: Time steps must be even and consistent, so do not leave gaps if you have missing data. Instead, input the sequential time stamp (year, month, day, hour, minute) and use a Missing Indicator to flag any missing data.

In AERMET View, the Missing Indicator for each variable can be customized via the Onsite Variable Ranges tab.

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With the above information and the tools available in AERMET View, users can efficiently process their custom meteorological data for use in the AERMOD model.



Scientists Turn to Deep Learning to Improve Air Quality Forecasts

April 5, 2021 - Air pollution from the burning of fossil fuels impacts human health but predicting pollution levels at a given time and place remains challenging, according to a team of scientists who are turning to deep learning to improve air quality estimates.

Read more →

UMD Collaborates to Quantify How Climate Change Has Slowed Agricultural Productivity Growth Worldwide

April 5, 2021- The University of Maryland (UMD) collaborated with Cornell University and Stanford University to quantify the man-made effects of climate change on global agricultural productivity growth for the first time.

Read more →

Additional Environmental News

Visit the Environmental News Network (ENN), the most dependable online environmental news source!



2021 Conference Schedule

Air & Waste Management Association’s 114th Annual Conference & Exhibition
June 14-17, 2021 | Virtual Event

Learn more →


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